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TERADATA
1

What is Teradata?

Teradata is a Rdbms which drives the companies to Datawarehouse
a) It is an Open system, which executes on Unix-MpRass,
window2000 and above flatforms
(open system: Industry standards and platform independent)
b)Compatable with ANSI Standards
c)Acts like a server
d)Run on single and multiple nodes
e)Built in Parallelism

Teradata other Rdbms
Shared nothing Architecture Shared every thing Architec
It loads Billions of Records          It loads Millions of Records
It can process Terabytes of data It can process Giga bytes of data
It follows un conditional parallelism It follows conditional parallelism
Teradata providing many bulk load oracle ,sql server
fecilities
Indexes are useful for better storage Here only fast Retrival
and fast retrival

Unique Advantages of Teradata:
==============================
1.In Teradata the data distribution is automatic and distributed in parallel
2.High Scalability : Even we increase no of users,work,nodes
Terdata never sacrifies any performance
3.Models the Business: It supports all business models such as

a)Teradata Airline Decisions:
Make critical decisions on when to open or close flights
to avoid overbooking.

b)Teradata Demand Chain Management:
Increase sales and decrease inventory with the most accurate
forecasting solution available.

d)Teradata Tax Solutions:
Identify non-compliant taxpayers, collect revenue and
provide customer service.

f)Teradata Customer Data Integration:
Accurate customer views across multiple channels,
business lines and organizations.

g)Teradata Relationship Manager:
Manage, coordinate and optimize your customer conversations
in real time.

h)Teradata Transportation Decisions:
Analytic tools to measure profitability, and fight customer
churn and rising fuel costs.

j)Master Data Management:
Maintain the integrity and reliability of your master data
enterprise-wide.

k)Teradata Decision Experts:
Quickly transform ERP data into information that guides
critical decisions.

l)Teradata Integrated Web Intelligence:
Integrating customer web behavior with historical data for
better decision-making and improved business value

m)Teradata Retail Decisions:
Built on key analytic templates for hundreds of metrics from
proven best practices.

6. Mature Optimizer: We can perform 64join,64 sub-query,
formulation,aggrigation OLAP operations in a single query

7.Multiple Parallel utilities: In Teradata we have BETQ,
FASTLOAD,MULTILOAD,TPUMP,FAST EXPORT
utilities to load and un load the data

Teradata History:
=================
Version of Teradata History:
============================
1979 Started the company
v1r1  ---- v1r4
1989 TD took the help of NCR
1992 agreement joined with NCR
2002 td v2r5 released in the market
2006 ncr & seperated v2r6 released
2007 td 12.0 released
now td13.0

Primary Components:
===================
Database Capacity
*      50PB(Pega bytes)
*      1,024 nodes
Data Model
*      Relational
*      ANSI SQL Compatible
*      Full Query Parallelism
*      Balanced Performance
Architectures Supported
*      Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP)
*      Massively Parallel Processing (MPP)
Operating Systems Supported
*      Linux
*      Microsoft® Windows®
*      UNIX®
Client Platforms Supported
*      Windows
*      MP-RAS and most other UNIX
platforms
*      Linux
Application Programming Interfaces
*      ODBC Driver for Teradata
*      Teradata JDBC Driver
*      Teradata CLI
*      .NET Data Provider for Teradata

oppurtunities:
==============
1. Teradata Developer
2. Teradata DBA
3.DWH ( ETL OR REPROTING) + TERADATA
4. Teradata + .Net/Java
5. Teradata Tester
6. FSLDM developer - financial services logical data model

Teradata Architecture:
=====================

sql Request Flow:
=================
Parsing Engines(PE's):
======================
These are made up of the following software compnents
1.Session control
2.The Parser
3.The Optimizer
4.The Dispatcher

1. Session Control:
===================
Once a valid session has been established by a session controls for individual
users the PE is the component that manager the dailogue between the client
application and the RDBMS.

2.The Parser:
=============
When a PE receives an SQL Request from a client application,
the parser interprets the statement,checks it for proper SQL
Syntax and evaluvates it semantically. The PE also must consult
the data dictionary Directory to ensure that all objects and
columns exist and that the user has authority to access these
objects.
3.Optimizer:
============
The Optimizer Role is to develop the least expensive plan to
return the requested response set processing alternative are
evaluated and the fastest alternative is chosen. This alternative is
converted to executable steps, to be performed by the AMP's.
Which are then passed to the dispatches
4.Dispatcher:
=============
The dispatcher Controls the sequence in which the steps are
executed and passes the steps on to the message parsing layer

* Depends on the nature of the SQL request, the steps will be
sent to one AMP, a few AMP's or all AMP's

Each access module processor(AMP) is responsible for
managing a portion of the database. An AMP will control some
portion of each table on the system. AMP's do all of the
physical work associated with generating an answer set
including, sorting,aggregating,formating and converting

An AMP responds to parser/Optimizer transmitted across the
MPL by selecting  data from or storing data to its disks for some
requests the AMP's may also redistribute a copy of the data
other AMP's

* The Database manages sub-system resides on each AMP. It
receives the steps from the dispatcher and processes the steps.
To do that it has the ability to lock databases and tables,
to create,modify, or delete definitions of tables, to insert, delete,
or modify rows with in the tables, and to retrive information from
definitions and tables. It collects accounting statistics,recording
accesses by sessions so those users can be billed appropriately,
finally

* AMP's also perform output data conversion, checking the
session and changing the internal,8-bit ascii used by teradata
to the format of the requests. This is the reverse of the process
performed by the PE when it converts the incoming data into
internal ASCII

Typical Client Connections:
===========================
* In channel Attached systems, there are three major
components, which play important roles in getting the requests
to and form the teradata RDBMS
1.CA
2.CLI
3.TDP

CA:
===
The client application is either written by a programmer
or is one of Teradata's provided utility programms. Many client
applications are written as 'Front-Ends' for sql submission but
they also are written for file maintanance and report generation

CLI:
===
The call level interface(CLI) is the lowest level interface to the
Teradata RDBMS.
It consists of system calls which create sessions, allocate request
and response buffers create and deblock "Parcels" of
information, and fetch response information to the requesting
client.

TDP:
====
The teradata derector Programm(TDP) is a Teradata supplied
programm which must run on any client system which will be
channel attached to the Teradata RDBMS.The TDP manages
the session traffic between the call-level interface and the
RDBMS. Its functions include session initiation and
termination,logging,Verification,recovery and restart as well as
physical input to and output from the PE's(including session
balancing) and the maintanance of queues. The TDP may also
handle system security

*In network attached systems these are four major software
components that play important roles in getting the requests to
and from the teradata RDBMS.
1.CA
2.CLI
3.MTDP
4.MOSI

CA:
===
The client Application is written by the programmer using a
client supported language such as 'C'. The purpose of the
application is usually to submit sql statements to the RDBMS
and perform processiong on the result sets. The application
developer can 'embed' sql statements in the application and
use the  Teradata preprocessor to interpret the embeded sql
statements

CLI:
====
The call level interface(CLI) is a library of routines that
resides on the client side. client application programms use
these routines to perform operations such as logging on and off,
submitting SQL queries and receiving responses which contain
the answer set. These routines are 98%. The same in
a network-attached environment as they are in a channel-attached

MTDP:
=====
The Micro Teradata Director Program(MTDP) is a Teradata
-supported program that must be linked to any application that
will be network attached to the teradata RDBMS. The MTDP
perform many of the functions of the channel based TDP
including session management. The MTDP does not control
session balancing across PE's. This is handlled by connect and
asign servers that run on the Teradata system.

MOSI:
=====
The Micro Operating System Interface(MOSI) is a library of
routines providing operating system independence for clients
access the RDBMS by using MOSI, We only need one
version of the MTDP to run on all network attached platforms.

NODE:  A node is nothing but a collection of H/W and S/W
components typically a server is called as a node.

Channel Driver and TD Gateway are the applications runs
under O/S as processor

Remaning components of Teradata such as PE,BYNET,AMP
runs under PDE

TPD(Trusted Parallel Database):
=====================
Database which runs under PDE is called TPD

Teradata is the database which runs under PDE, so we call
Teradata as Trusted Parallel Database TPD.

SMP Architecture:(symetric Multi Proccessing):
===============================
A single node architecture can also be called as SMP
architecture. Here PE and AMP(Access module Processor)
are virtual Processor's where BYNET is an intemediate layer
between PE and AMP

Here BYNET is called S/W bynet or Boardless BYNET

Key features of BYNET:
======================
1. Fault Tollerance
2. Load Balancing
3. High scalability

1. Collection of nodes which make larger configuration is called
MPP
2. All the NODES are connected via a component called BYNET
3. Here we have two bynets
4. here the bynet is called board oriented or hardware bynet
5. as per v2r5 we have maximum 512 nodes to connect to a
bynet

Bynet features:
===============
1. Fault tolerance: each bynet will have multiple network paths
to connect to nodes, if there is a failure in any of the network
path, BYNET will reconfigure it self and avoid the unusable
network path, in this way if there is any fault occur bynet will
tolerance it self.
2. Load Balancing: If BYNET0 is unable to reconfigure or
unable to handle the traffic or instrunctions to be moved to bynet
1 and it balances the load
3. High scalability: If you increase the number of nodes, bynet
will not sacrifies any performance.

AMP(Access Module Processor):
=============================
AMP is responsible for managing a portion of the database
(collection of virtual disks), this portion is not sharable by any
other virtual processor due to this reason we call this  architecture
is shared nothing architecture.

AMP will have database manager sub system and it does the
below operations

a. Perform DDL
b. Perform DML
c. Implementing LOCKS
d. Implementing JOINS
e. Implementing Aggrigations

basic administration:
====================

ABOUT TERADATA

What is Teradata? Teradata is a Rdbms which drives the companies to Datawarehouse a) It is an Open system, which executes on Unix-MpRass, window2000 and above flatforms (open system: Industry standards and platform independent) b)Compa...  


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